questions and to come to descriptive conclusion.
CHAPTER FOUR
DATA ANALYSIS AND Results
۴.۱. Overview
In this chapter, Attar’s Mantiq ut-Tair and the two English translations of it by Nott (1954), Darbandi and Davis (1984) are analyzed and discussed in detail to clarify the concepts of intertextuality (KP allusion) and strategies used in these translations based on Leppihalmes’ strategies KPs This chapter is set to present the 43 examples of KP allusions for the purpose of checking the translators’ strategies utilized in poetry translating process.
۴.۲. Analysis of the Data
۴.۲.۱. Key-phrase Allusions in Attar (1177) Mantiq ut- Tair
Attar’s”great philosophical religious poem Mantiq ut-Tair” is the work which is based on three most important categories such as beauty, love and pain. By using allusions he tries to convey the most important religious concepts by his poems to audience. In fact, Attar’s intertext range broadly across the Koran, history and myths, and figures of these sources receive multiple references in his Mantiq ut-Tair. Some of the KP allusions are:
جلوه گربگذشت برچین نیمشب
It was in China, late one moonless night
لیک فردا دربلاعمردراز
Tomorrow they will meet misfortune
This chapter intends to investigate the used key-phrases in Attar’s book such as mythological, religious and historical key-phrase allusions. Furthermore, due to the comprehensive use of key-phrases allusions in Mantiqu’t-Tair, all examples of different key-phrases belonging to each allusion are discussed based on the strategies suggested by Leppihaleme (1997) by different translators such as Nott (1954), Darbandi and Davis (1984).
In this phase, first of all, some actual examples of KP allusions in Mantiq ut-Tair by Attar followed by their translations are given. Then the utilized strategies and some explanations regarding KP allusions and translator’s treatment are provided. Similarities and differences between the translations and the original are discussed and the effects produced by different translations are studied. In this part, the first translation is of Nott and the second to Darbandi and Davis.ترجمه شوره ها از کیست؟
Example 1:
گاه گل بر روی آتش دسته کرد گاه پل بر روی دریا بسته کرد(۱۴)
۱. Sometimes he makes clusters of rose’s spring from the face; sometimes he throws bridges across the face of the waters.
۲. ……………………………………………………….
This key- phrase allusion refers to sixty ninth verse of Al-Anbiya Surah (We said: O fire, be coolness and peace for Abraham!).
Comparison and Comment:
The translator has utilized ‘standard translation strategy’ for translating the KP allusion. The translator has tried to transfer the meaning of the SL into the TL by way of semantic structure. The TL reader can grasp the semantic meaning of the KP in this translation by receiving some target equivalents for the original KP. The second translator did not render the couplet or omit it in his rendering.
Example 2:
چرخ را دور شبانروزی دهد شب برد،روز آورد،روزی دهد(۲۷)
۱. God has made the firmament to revolve-night follows day and day the night.
۲. ……………………………………………..
The all couplet is a KP allusion. It refers to twenty seventh verse of Al-Imran Surah (Thou causest the night to pass into the day, and Thou causest the day to pass into the night. And Thou bringest forth the living from the dead, and Thou Thou bringest forth the dead from the living. And Thou givest sustenance to whom Thou choosest, without stint).
Comparison and Comment:
‘Replacement by performed TL item’ is the translation strategy which has been applied by the translator in this translation; TL readers are able to experience a foreign word despite the language barriers. According to the KP in the SL, the translator has replaced a chain of choice with color of English in TL. In fact the reader of TL cannot understand the exact meaning which would be possible. The second translator did not render this couplet or omit it in rendering.
Example 3:
چون دمی در گل دمد آدم کند وزکف و دودی همه عالم کند(۲۸)
۱. When he breathes on clay man is created; and from a little vapour he forms the world.
۲. …………………………………………………..
However, the second translator did not translate the all couplet. This allusion refers to the creation of all universe, skies and Land.
Comparison and Comment:
The translator utilized ‘standard translation’ for translating the KP. That is, perform TL wording because it requires no new verbalization from the translator and, being transcultural helps the translator to convey the full rage of meaning, including connotations. In fact, this translation can therefore thought a sign of translatorial competence. The translator has tried to express figurative meaning. The TL reader can understand the spirit and the message of the KP allusion as the source language readers understand it.
Example 4:
گه سگی را ره دهد درپیشگاه گه کند از گربه ای مکشوف راه(۲۹)
۱. Sometimes he causes the dog to go before the traveler; Some times he uses to show the Way.
۲. ……………………………………………..
The second translator did not render the couplet which is a KP allusion. It refers to eightieth verse of Al- Kahf Surah (And thou wouldst have deemed them waking though though they were asleep, and We caused them to turn over to the right and the left, and their dog stretching out his paws on the threshold. If thou hadst observed them closely thou hadst assuredly turned away from them in fight, and hadst been filled with awe of them.
Comparison and Comment:
The translator has applied ‘minimum change strategy’. This translation is a literal translation. The KP allusion is translated literally without regard to connotative or contextual meaning. According to Leppihame (1997, p. 96) a minimum change translation can work well if (1) the allusion is transcultural, so that the literal translation is also the standard translation, with the same connotation(2) a literal rendering is transparent enough a metaphorical level.
Example 5:
گه عصایی را سلیمانی دهد گاه موری راسخندانی دهد(۳۲)
۱. Sometimes he gives the power of Solomon to a staff; sometimes he accords eloquence to the ant.
۲. …………………………………………………..
This KP allusion refers to the Solomon’s story that the second translator did not render the couplet.
Comparison and Comment:
The translator has utilized the ‘standard translation’ for translating the KP allusion. The translator has tried to express figurative meaning. The TL reader can understand the spirit and the message of the KP allusion as the SL readers understand it. The main focus of translator is on the semantic meaning of the KP allusion by paying attention to the connotative and contextual meaning.
Example 6:
چون فلک را کُره ای سرکش کند از هلالش نعل در آتش کند(۳۴)
۱. He has placed in the firmament the orb of the proud, and binds it with iron when glowing red it wans.
۲. ……………………………………………………..
This allusion refers to the Storm of Noah in Attar Mantiq ut Tair. Second translator did not translate the poem.
Comparison and Comment:
‘Minimum change’ is a translation strategy which has been applied by the translator to translate the KP allusion. In fact, this translation is literal. The translator has rendered the KP allusion word-by-word. He has concentrated on the structural form of the TL not to transfer the KP meaning from the SL into the TL. It is difficult for the TL readers to understand the KP allusion meaning as the SL readers communicate with and enjoy.
Example 7:
گفت ای «ای آدم تو بحر جود باش ساجدند آن جمله تو مسجود باش»(۱۳۴)
۱. And he said to him, ‘O Adam, all creatures adore me; be adored in your turn’.
۲………………………………………………………..
The second translator did not translate the poem. In fact, this allusion refers to the Man’s creation and his more superiority than other creature in universe.
Comparison and Comment:
The translation is idiomatic translation because the translator has used the natural forms of the TL, both in the grammatical construction and in the choice of lexical items. The strategy utilized in translation is ‘standard translation’. He has tried to convey the range of meaning including connotative and contextual meaning.
Example 8:
وان یکی کز سجده او سر بتافت مسخ و ملعون گشت آن سرّ در نیافت(۱۳۵)
۱ The only one who turened from this adoration was transformed from an angel into a demon. He was cursed and had no knowledge of the secret.
۲ ………………………………………………………..
The second translator did the

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