translation as pervious examples because he did not it and this allusion refers to the thirty forth verse of Al- Baqarah Surah (And when We said unto the angels: Prostrate yourselves before Adam, they fell prostrate, all save Iblis. He demurred through pride, and so became a dis beliver.)
Comparison and Comment:
‘Extra-allusive guidance’ strategy added in the text, where the translator follows his/her assessment of the needs of the TT readers by adding information which the author, with his/her SL viewpoint, did not think necessary, including the use of typographical means to signal that the material is performed. The translator follows his assessment of the needs of the TL readers by adding some information. The use of typographical means to signal that the material is performed to translate the KP allusion according to SL viewpoint.
Example 9:
همچو موسی دیده ای آتش ز دور لاجَرَم موسیجه ای بر کوه طور(۶۲۴)
۱. Like Moses you have seen the fire from afar; you are really a little Moses on Mount Sinai.
۲. Like Moses you have seen the flames burn high- On Sinais slopes and there you long to fly,
This KP allusion refers to seventh verse of Al-Naml Surah: (Remember) when Moses said unto his household: Lo! I spy afar off a fire; I will bring you tidings thence, or bring to you a borrowed flame that ye may warm yourselves. It refers to what a great prophet called Mossa who saw a fire which is a sign of the one God in a well-known mountain called Tour. But the translator has translated the text word by word not to transfer information to English audience. As a result, the reader misses the relevant background the allusion.
Comparison and Comment:
In first translation, the translator has utilized ‘replacement by a performed TL item strategy’. Although translated poetry into English, the reference is far removed from the experiences of the English audience, and does not evoke any intertextual meaning using the equivalent for the KP allusion in Persian text. In fact, the translator has not provided the exact information for the KP allusion because the exact meaning of the fire in the above text.
While in second translation depending on the preferred strategy which is ‘the reduction of allusion to sense by rephrasal’, the translator entitle to get away from the KP because he has devoted the message, the sense and the sprit of the KP allusion in his translation. In fact, he has not any ability to transfer the relative values as well as the exact meaning. What the translator has regarded in his translation is only paying much attention to linguistic structure of the text.
Example 10:
طُوق آتش ازبرای دوزخی است حُله ازبهربهشتی وسَخی است (۶۲۸)
۱. this collar is fitting for a dweller in the underworld but your robe is worthy of Heaven.
Comparison and comment:
The translator has utilized a strategy called ‘reduction of allusion’ to sense by rephrasal, in other words, making its meaning overt and dispensing with the allusive KP itself in this translation. He has expanded knowledge and understanding in English translation. The contextual meaning in this translation is ambiguous because he has not understood the semantic meaning of the key-allusion in Islamic culture. He has only translated fire allusion by using an equivalent which cannot transform the body of religious meaning to English reader. The translator also has omitted the word of (طوق). The contextual meaning of the KP allusion in this translation has been ignored to some extent that English reader is not able to be aware of sensitive to collocation of the KP.
۲. A necklace of bright fire about the throat;
Though heavens bliss is promised by your coat,  This circle stands for hell; if you can flee
Comparison and comment:
In second translation, the translator has applied the ‘replacement by a performed TL item strategy’. The allusion to »necklace of bright fire «has been reduced to sense by the first and second translator. The Persian connotations of the KP allusion have been removed and it has been translated according to linguistic meaning in English not to semantic meaning in Persian. In fact, the communication between the translated text and English reader has been lost so that both translators have tried to make linguistic meaning of KP allusion. On the other hand, intertextuality which is an aspect of allusion in order to convey semantic or idiomatic meaning of translation has been ignored by both translators.
The KP allusion here refers to seventy one verse of Al-Mu’min Surah (When carcans are about their necks and chains. They are dragged).
Example 11:
خوش بنال از درد دل داوود وار تا کنندت هر نَفَس صد جان نثار(۶۴۸)
۱. Utter your plaintive notes caused by the wounds and pains of love. Lament sweetly from the heart, like David.
۲. Like David in loves garden gently sigh There sing the songs that make men long to die.
This KP allusion refers to tenth verse of Saba’Surah (And assurdly We gave David grace from Us, (saying): O ye hills and birds, echo his psalms of praise! And we made the iron supple unto him).
Comparison and comment:
The strategy which has been used by both translators of the text is ‘re-creation, using a fusion of techniques’: creative construction of a passage which hints at the connotations of the allusion or other special effects created by it. In this translation, both translators mostly exercise true semantic and cultural translation for the KP allusion. The translators have shown concerns for the ST. They have not hindered the readability of the text by offering TL version which does not belong to the cultural system of the ST.
Example 12:
حلق داوودی به معنی بر گشای خلق را از لحن خلقت رهنمای(۶۴۹)
۱. Open your melodious throat and sing of spiritual things. By your songs show men the true way.
۲. O, sing as David did, and with your song Guide home mans suffering and deluded throng.
The KP allusion refers to the common idea in Islamic culture which is exist is seeing of universe in true harmony creation.
Comparison and comment:
Both translators have utilized two strategies in their translations. These strategies which have preferred are: ‘omission of the allusion’ and use of ‘standard translation’ strategies. Both translators without regarding to connotative or contextual meaning of the allusion translated text literally. In fact, they have not provided the reader with extra-allusive information to compensate for the loss of connotative or contextual meaning. The primary aims of these translators are not to stay close to the experience of ST. They have not shown a concern for the target reader’s comprehension. But, on the whole, translations are literal because they have ignored contextual and pragmatic considerations in ST.
Example 13:
تنگدل زانی که درخون مانده ای درمضیق حبس ذالنون مانده ای(۶۶۳)
۱. You went out contented and returned with a sad heart to a prison as narrow as Jonah’s.
۲. Your heart is wrung with grief; you share the goal That Jonah knew, the belly of a whale
The KP allusion refers to falling Jonah in whale’s stomach and he was prisoned.
Comparison and comment:
The first translator using a ‘standard translation’ strategy has translated the KP allusion. He has created a KP allusion in TL in order to express the exact meaning of KP allusion in SL version. In general, he has struggled to convey the semantic and cultural meaning of KP allusion in ST to TL reader. In second translation of KP allusion belonging to ST, the translators have privileged linguistic meaning over semantic meaning in the translation. Through the ‘minimum change’ strategy specific allusion belonging to the source culture is substituted for by allusion belonging to the TL culture.
Example 14:
ای شده سرگشته ماهی نَفَس چند خواهی دید بدخواهی نفس(۶۶۴)
۱. O you who wander here and there like a fish, can you languish in ill will?
۲. The Self has swallowed you for its delight; how long will you endure its mindless spite?
As said in previous example the KP allusion refers to falling Jonah in whale’s stomach and he was prisoned.
Comparison and Comment:
  ‘Minimum change’, that is, a literal translation without regard to connotative or contextual meaning there is thus no change that would aim specifically at the transfer of connotations, The translators only have paid attention to the linguistic structure of the KP allusion in TL version. In translations, cultural meaning and semantic meaning without regarding to the role of connotative and contextual meaning has not been transferred to the target reader. The translations are literal translation or word-by-word translation.
Example 15:
بسته مردار دنیا آمدی

دسته بندی : No category

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