intertextuality will be elaborated.
۲.۳. Types of Intertextuality
“Intertextuality can operate at any level of text organization (Hatim & Mason 1997, P. 18).” He pointed out intertextuality involving phonology, morphology, syntax or semantics and its expression ranges from single words or phrases with special cultural significance in a given linguistic community at a certain time, to Macro-textual conventions and constraints associated with genre, register and discourse (Hatim, 1997, p. 201). According to (Hatim and Mason 1997) “intertextuality encompasses any element (macro-or- micro-) which helps readers identify and derive meaning from the surface features they have already come across (p. 201).” Therefore, Hatim (1997, p. 30) has summarized and expanded different types of intertextuality which have been proposed by different writers.
۲.۳.۱. Horizontal or Vertical Reference
Citing the work of Bakhtin, Hatim(1997, p. 30) distinguished between horizontal and vertical intertextuality. In the first case the relation between two texts is explicit-a text, or extract thereof, written in reply to or development of another one, for example. This type of intertextuality is a key feature of academic writing and identified by Hoey (1991, pp. 31-34) in terms of “academic oeuvre” and “text colony”. On the other hand, Hatim (1997) argued that vertical intertextuality is more implicit, and may relate, for example, to writing conventions (p. 30).
۲.۳.۲. Manifest or Constitutive Reference
The distinction between intertextual relations of texts to other texts (horizontally) and/or to textual conventions (vertically), may be linked to another useful distinction proposed by Norman Fairclough- that of “manifest” and “constitutive” intertextuality (Hatim, 1997, p.30). According to Fairclough (as quoted in Agger, par14) manifest intertextuality can be divided into the following categories: “Discourse representation, presupposition, negation, metadiscourse, and irony”, all of which are affected by the text in one way or another.
۲.۳.۳. Active versus Passive Intertextuality
According to Hatim and Mason (1990, p. 124), the intertextual link “is strong when it activates knowledge and belief systems well beyond the text itself”. On the other hand, there are passive forms of intertextuality which “amount of little more than the basic requirement that text be internally coherent (p.124).”This classification of intertextuality is seen by Beagrande and Dressler (1988, p. 182) in terms of the Mediation; or “the extent to which on feeds one’s current beliefs and thoughts into the model of the communicative situation”. Hatim and Mason (1990), argued, occurs when knowledge of other texts is drawn upon to process the text at hand. When there is a great distance between the current text and the previously encountered text (due to the factors such as the passage of time), then mediation is said to be greater (p. 127).
۲.۴. Scope of Intertextuality
Maybe the context of literary theory is the origin of the studies of intertextuality. Some fields as film, music, painting and poetry were encompassing by intertextuality.
۲.۵. Poetry
Poetry is a form of speech, written or spoken. In other words, poetry like all discourse is a communication-the saying of something by one person to another person (Brooks and Warren, 1838, p. 2). Lefevere (1992, p. 88) maintained that translating poetry can be considered different from translating other text types, in the sense that one translating poetry is not engaged in a single level to deal with but a fourfold process including: language, ideology, poetics and universe of discourse at each of which particular problems arise to involve him with. Therefore, one has to develop some strategies to deal with them considering the perspective problems, Lefevere (1992, p. 88) has introduced a hierarchy for these levels, which looks like this:
۱. Ideology
۲. Poetics
۳. Universe of discourse
۴. Language
Lefevere (1992) also pointed out that the inconsistency between a ST and the ideology of the target culture can be troublesome, in the sense that it compels translators to manipulate the translation outcome to make it fit in with the dominant ideological currents of his culture) p. 88). By poetics, Lefevere (1992, p. 88) means literary traditions of a certain language one of the problem arising at this level is the presence of a particular genre of poetic element in the SL which is nonexistent in the TL. He argued on the universe of discourse the translator may face things, customs and concepts that are immediately intelligible to the readers of the original text but are no longer intelligible for the readers of TT (p. 49). In Lefevere (1992) view allusion can be found in the level of poetics or prose, in which it is considered, on the one hand, troublesome to convey and on the other hand translatable (p. 49).
۲.۶. Forms of Intertextuality
According to concept of intertextuality, no text can be read outside its relations to other texts. In fact, any text in order to be communicable would strike various types of relations with other texts. These relations may take many forms including allusion, plagiarism and quotation (Genette, 1992, P. 8). The present study, is investigating on one form of intertextuality, namely; that is allusion.
۲.۷. Allusion
The etymology of term ‘Allusion’ as proposed by Leppihalme (1997, p. 5), seems to have a connection with the idea of play: add + ludere = alludere. According to Lass et al, (1987 as cited in Leppihalme, 1997, p. 6), an allusion is a figure of speech that compares aspects or qualities of counterpart in history, mythology, scripture, literature, popular or contemporary culture.
In other words, Leddy (1992, p. 110) argued that language use, at least to a certain extent, shows that an allusion is not just a reference. Accordingly, the precise nature of allusions has been debated among scholars over the last three decades. For example, authorial intention and names’ potentiality of being allusive are some of the problematic areas which have caused some debates among scholars which are addressed briefly here as follow:
Leddey (1992, p. 89) assumed a level of authorial intentionally as inevitable. He therefore suggested that the authors make use of allusions to express something, though they may not always be conscious of their intentions and may even create allusions which are culture-bound unintentionally. Pucci (1998) have strongly argued that the reader should be the sole source of meaning in allusion (p. 32).
Another problematic issue to be considered about allusion is whether names are allusive. Hermeren (1992, p. 11) believed that allusions employ implicit information which are unstated connotations, so in this sense they are indirect. He also seems to be suggesting that alluding words cannot be identical with the evoked text and thus he questions the possibility that names and unmodified quotations could function as allusions. On the other hand, Ben-Porat (1976, p. 50) and Perri (1978, p. 41) argued that allusive words and the evoked words may be identical emphasizing on names’ potentiality of being allusive.
۲.۷.۱. Functions of Allusion
The use of allusion has had a long rhetorical history for reasons mentioned by Wheeler (1979): “Allusions help to elucidate the meaning of each text and to indicate the literary modes and conventions in which its author works (p. 182).” According to Sikorska (2000, p. 260), allusions elucidate the meaning by being complementary to the earlier text and thus expanding the scope of its meaning. But, Leppihalme (1997,p. 37) noted that creating humor, delineating characters and carrying themes are more functions of allusion. The first of these, humor (including parody and irony) is employed to detract from the importance of a situation or character. Conrad’s allusion to the ‘whitened sepulcher’ in his Heart of Darkness is an example of irony which depicts religious hypocrisy. Reinforcing themes is another function of allusion proposed by Leppihalme (1997).
She writes on the macro-level the use of creative allusions often brings in a suggestion of universality, a heightening of emotion, a desire to imply that there is something about a situation or character in the alluding context that is more important than the reader would other wise assume, and which may be of thematic importance for the interpretation of the text as a whole (Leppihalme, 1997, p. 37).
Allusions can also function as an economical aid to characterization characters who make use of allusions, as Leppihalme (1997, p. 44) puts it, seem to be well-educated, literate and intelligent and they use allusions in order to serve their interests, as when a central character,

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