from the time Islam entered Iran to the present day. But these phrases as Gordon (cited in Leppihalme, 1997) put it, remain always a thing apart from the movement of the writer’s own poetry: “He knows and his audience knows, that he is citing scripture. To both reader and writer the words are so familiar that quotation marks are unnecessary (p. 69).” It is therefore, no surprise that the Koran is the most common single source of KP allusions in the text under investigation that is Attar’s Mantiq ut-Tair. Other sources of KP allusions in Mantiq ut-Tair would be Hadiths (saying and quotations from the holy personalities in Islam).
لیک فردا در بلا عمر دراز جمله از شاهی خود مانند باز(۹۳۱)
Nott: tomorrow they will meet misfortune and be forever deprived of their royalty
Darbandi and Davis: Though it is true that you confer on men-This majesty, kings must sink down again-And bear the punishments of Judgment Day
The KP allusion refers to the common verse in standing of kings at the Day and asking about their judgments in society at their time.
Adopting slogans from films, advertisement, and political campaign forms a further group of KP allusion. Yet various catch-phrases, clichés, proverbs, popular beliefs, assumptions and stories are other forms of KP allusions suggested by Leppihalme (1997, p. 70). The following section introduces Leppihalme’s lists of strategies for translating allusions.
۲.۷.۴. Strategies for translating Allusions
According to Leppihalme (1997, p. 24) there is a difference between PN allusions and KP allusions. She also noted that potential strategies for these two groups are slightly different. She again proposed this is due to the fact that it is often possible to retain a PN unchanged, whereas KP requires a change in wording. In fact, there is no criterion comparable to the treatment of PN for translating KPs. KPs are hardly ever retained untranslated, the ‘retention’ (literally) of a KP then make no sense in this case. Nor is there in most cases only one standard translation available, the use of which could be labeled a retentive strategy; rather, due to synonyms, variations of word order, etc, KPs can mostly be translated in a variety of ways. However, the translation strategies that Leppihalme offers for translating KP allusions are as follows (1997, p. 84):
A. Use standard translation
B. Literal translation /minimum change
C. Addition extra-allusive guidance (including typographical means)
D. Footnotes, endnotes and other explanations outside in the text itself.
E. Simulated familiarity, internal marking (marked wording or syntax)
F. Replace by preformed TL item
G. Reduction to sense (making the connotations overt but dispensing with the KP itself)
H. Re-creation using a variety of techniques
I. Omission
Strategies mentioned for case of PN allusions are divided in three categories with subcategories including:
۱. Retain name
(۱a) Retain unchanged, or in conventional TL form
(۱b) Retain unchanged with added guidance
(۱c) Retain unchanged with detailed explanation
۲. Replace name
(۲a) Replace with different source language (SL) name
(۲b) Replace with different target language (TL) name
۳. Omit name
(۳a) Reduce to sense/meaning of the name
(۳b) Omit name and allusion completely
The conventional TL forms or required changes of PNs has regarded (as in strategies 1 and 2), Newmark (1988, p. 215) remarks that wile people’s first names and surnames are normally retained and unaltered. According to him (1988), where connotations are significant the best method is first to translate the word that underlies the SL PN into a new SL and then to naturalize the translated word back into a new SL PN (p. 215). However, Newmark (1988) warns that this method can only be used when “the character’s name is not yet current among an educated TL readership” (p. 46). Furthermore, Leppihalme also identified two seldom used strategies that the translator has at his/her disposal (1) throwing up of one’s hands in desperation and (2) replacing an untranslatable passage with a message that explicitly states the situation (1997, p. 84).
Figure 2.1: A Minimax ordering of strategies for key-phrase allusion (Leppihalme, 1997, P. 107)
Figure 2.2: A Minimax ordering of strategies for proper names allusion (Leppihalme, 1997, P. 106)
• Standard translation(A) and minimum change(B)
The minimax strategy for transcultural KP allusions is standard translation. The transcultural allusion has connotations in the target culture as well, so that even in translation the allusion offers competent readers the pleasure of recognition and the chance to participate in the literary process, comparable to a ST reade’s participation (Leppihalme, 1997, P. 115). Leppihalme (1997, P. 115) notes; “some semi-allusive descriptions of involving names generally unfamiliar to TT readers could perhaps be omitted with little loss; however, even such descriptions may partly work”. She allows accessional use of omission only when readers may be unaware of connotations of the name, and descriptions convey a basic point (Leppihalme, 1997, p. 115). She noted that however, if the author of the ST has provided her/ his readers with fairly detailed descriptions about the character, the translator can omit the KP here, assuming that the authorial descriptions would suffice to help TL readers get the author’s point (Leppihalme, 1997, p.115).
• Guidance external marking(c)
Leppihalme (1997, p.116) pointed out extra-allusive additions resemble the ways ST authors sometimes signal allusion to call attention to the fact that a phrase is borrowed rather than original. She believed that this can take the typographical form of inverted commas or italics. The italics emphasis that the words have been used before with special meaning, in case potential readers of the passage might think that the repetition of the word indicated the character’s annoyance at being asked to make decisions. She also noted that italics or inverted commas could be used in translation. The signal may also take the form of an introductory phrase; in this way a TT reader could infer that a puzzling expression in the text was perfumed-information that competent ST readers would possess as part of their cultural literacy (Leppihalme, 1997, P. 117).
• Internal Marking(E)
Leppihaleme (1997, p. 118) argued that internal marking or what might be called simulated familiarity can sometimes be achieved by using lines from an existing translation of a classic to translate an allusion are clearly poetry. Therefore, she believed that the allusion can also be made more visible by using italics (Leppihalme, 1997, P. 118).
• Replacement by preformed TL item(F)
In this strategy Leppihalme (1997, p. 118) views the replacement of a SL allusion by TL specific allusion as an alternative that is seldom effective. She also notes: “TL specific allusions disturb the desired illusion in translation that TL readers are able to experience a foreign word despite the language barriers (Leppihalme, 1997, p.118).” On this strategy she argued that this should not be confused with a standard translation, which implies a greater degree of lexical similarity between SL and TL versions; rather, here an idea acknowledged in both cultures (a fool hardy or pointless action) is conveyed by different images in the two languages (Leppihalme, 1997, p. 118).
• Reduction to sense by rephrasal(G)
Reduction strategy is “to call the readers’ attention to an allusion, translators sometimes use external marking. This can take for instance typographical form of inverted commas or italics (Leppihalme, 1997, p. 117).” She believed that the italics used by translator to emphasize that the italicized words are allusive references borrowed from a previous text (Leppihalme, 1997, P. 117).
On the other hand, Leppihalme (1997, p. 117) pointed out that this strategy is used when the translator, unable to find an appropriate equivalent for the allusion s/he has to translate, conveys the SL author’s point (in using that allusion) by the means of reducing it to its sense. She also discussed the reduction of allusion to sense usually leads to repeated and hence not creative allusions and this strategy can be considered for brief allusions to slogans in domestic politics, local advertising campaigns and the like, which would mean little or nothing to the TL audience Leppihalme (1997, p. 117).
• Recreation(H)
Recreation strategy “is usually a time-consuming strategy. In a wide sense, all translation can be regarded as recreation; for a change of language means recreating a situation (Leppihalme, 1997, p. 122).” But Levine (1975) “views recreation as inventions and changes

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